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Old September 4, 2001, 08:41 PM   #1
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Remington shotgun guide Part 2

CHOKES (See Choke Chart on page 6.)
The inside bore constriction at the muzzle end of a shotgun's barrel is known as the "choke." When a shot shell is fired, shot travels down the bore, exits the muzzle and begins to "spread out." Just as a nozzle on the end of a garden hose controls the spray of water, the choke controls the spread of shot - making it narrower or wider. The three basic chokes for a shotgun are known as "full" (tight constriction; delivers a narrow, dense
spread), "modified" (less constriction; delivers a medium-width spread) and "improved cylinder" (even less constriction; delivers a wide, open spread). A gun, which has no choke, is called a "cylinder bore" and delivers the widest spread. There are also a number of specialty chokes that provide narrower or wider spreads - some of the most popular are for skeet shooting
and turkey hunting. A shotgun's choke also determines its effective range. The tighter the constriction, the farther the effective range. For instance, a "full" choke is most effective at 40 to 50 yards.

An "improved cylinder" is most effective from 20 to 35 yards. Shotgun barrels come with either "fixed" (non-removable) chokes or today's more popular "interchangeable" screw-in choke tubes (like the Rem Choke system) that allow hunters to quickly and easily change chokes to match changing shooting conditions.


Super-Full and Extra-Full Chokes: "The gobbler getters." Specialized chokes with extra-tight constrictions and the densest patterns - ideally suited for the headshots necessary in turkey hunting.

Full Choke: Tight constriction for dense pattern (approximately 70% of a shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 40 yards). Best for trap shooting, pass shooting waterfowl, turkey hunting and shooting buckshot loads.

Modified Choke: Less constriction than full choke (approximately 60% of a shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 40 yards). Excellent for all-around hunting of waterfowl, long-range flushing upland birds (such as late-season pheasant and sharp tail grouse) as well as other small game. Also used for trap shooting.

Improved Cylinder Choke: Even less constriction than modified (approximately 50% of a shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 40 yards). Ideal for close-in small game shooting, upland bird hunting (such as quail, grouse and pheasant) as well as hunting waterfowl close over decoys. Rifled slugs also perform very well from this choke.

Cylinder Bore: No constriction (approximately 40% of a shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 40 yards). Most often used by law enforcement for service shotguns.

Skeet Choke: a specialty choke (approximately 50% of a shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 25 yards) designed to deliver optimum patterns for close-range skeet shooting.

SIGHTS: Since you are firing shells loaded with pellets rather than a cartridge with a single bullet, it's easiest to think of shotguns being pointed rather than aimed like a rifle. Therefore, sights on a shotgun usually play a less important role than those on a rifle. However, there are several types of sights available to the shotgunner, including scopes and mounting equipment for deer and turkey hunting.

BEADS: Beads are the most commonly used sights on a shotgun. Most shotguns have a single bead placed at the end of the barrel, just above the muzzle. Sometimes, a second bead is placed near the center of the barrel to better facilitate alignment. Beads are most commonly steel or white, but are also
available in other high-visibility colors such as orange.

SCOPES AND MOUNTS: For those who hunt deer with slugs, shotgun scopes are readily available. In fact, many turkey hunters also prefer scopes on their turkey guns. Some Remington deer barrels come equipped with a cantilever scope mount system that allows a scope to be attached directly to the barrel
(guaranteeing permanent zero) and extending back over the receiver for natural, quick-sighting eye relief. For shotguns without this pre-installed accessory, Remington offers a versatile, removable cantilever system that attaches directly to your shotgun's vent rib barrel to provide the same benefits - with the additional advantage of not having to drill holes in your gun as with some scope mount systems.

CHAPTER 2: Shotgun Shells

There are similarities and differences in the construction of shot shells. The brass, hull and primer are all quite similar. Shot cup designs, specific powders and the shot itself can vary greatly - particularly with steel shot, saboted or rifled slug shells. Here is a cross-section of the basic components of a shot shell.
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