.30 carbine was never designed to maim enemys and its ballistics overshadow the .357 magnum which is considered GTG on deer in most places.
The .30 Carbine was designed to be a replacement arm for the 1911A1 pistol, in the hands of service and support troops. Training someone to be able to actually make hits with the pistol at beyond point blank range is often a lengthy and time consuming matter. With a war on, troops that were NOT intended to be combat troops, yet still needing a weapon, were well served with a light carbine that they could make hits with out to 100yds or so when needed.
The Carbine quickly found favor with the combat troops, because it was light, held a lot of rounds (15) and was powerful enough to be useful in combat. Note that useful is not the same as efficient or highly effective.
As far as the .30 carbine round's ballistics "overshadowing" the .357 Mag, I don't know what ballistic tables you are looking at, but I'd love to see them, because the .30 carbine does NOT overshadow the .357 in any effective way.
Compare them both out of a carbine and the .357 gets as much, or more velocity, with heavier bullets, and is capable of shooting much heavier bullets than the carbine. Also, .357 bullets are much better shaped and suited to hunting than .30 carbine bullets.
The .30 Carbine round comes close to the .357, but only close, and in the game fields, at the speeds these two are capable of, bullet weight and construction are very significant and in that, the .357 has a clear edge.