I have an M1 carbine, a 30-30 marlin lever, and a 7.62x54r mosin nagant (roughly 30-06).
My M1 has a thirty round magazine, and since it's not firing very energetic rounds, it's very manageable. I would use it for short to medium range small game.
My Marlin lever has a little more recoil and power at the expense of capacity because of its larger rounds (and tubular design). It has roughly twice the energy of the M1. I would use it as a brush gun for deer.
My mosin holds five rounds. It is roughly twice as powerful as the 30-30, and it is long and unwieldy. I would use it for longer range shots on deer-size game and above.
Obviously, capacity, fire rate and effective range vary based on the platform. But hopefully that gives you an idea of the variation in size and energy between some of the 30 caliber rounds.
PS - Now Biff, don't con me!
Last edited by TheDoubleDeuce; January 20, 2013 at 11:22 PM.