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Old July 20, 2010, 09:51 AM   #2
Al Norris
Join Date: June 29, 2000
Location: Rupert, Idaho
Posts: 9,540
Current 2A Cases

  • 01. Nordyke v. King: Alameda County gun show ban. This case has been sent back to the original circuit panel. Supplemental briefing called for. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Donald Kilmer, attorney for plaintiffs.
    • 05-02-2011 - 1A and Equal Protection arguments were dismissed. Case remanded back to the District court to decide on the question of 2A rights (a reversal of the District on those grounds).
    • 05-23-2011 - Motion to reconsider and/or en banc hearing is now pending.
    • 11-28-2011 - Motion granted. En Banc briefing and hearing to be set.
    • 02-17-2012 - Ordered: En Banc Orals to be heard on March 19th, 2012.
    • 04-04-2012 - En Banc Court Orders parties to Circuit Mediation.
    • 06-01-2012 - The County's concession at oral arguments are held to be the law as interpreted. The County must allow gun shows on their property.
    • Aftermath - The district court ordered all parties to bear their own costs. The "No Prevailing Party" status was affirmed by the Circuit.
      • 08-30-2012 - Petition for a writ of certiorari filed. (Response due October 4, 2012)
      • 09-12-2012 - Waiver of right of respondents Mary V. King, et al. to respond filed.
      • 09-26-2012 - DISTRIBUTED for Conference of October 12, 2012.
      • 10-10-2012 - Response Requested . (Due November 9, 2012)
      • 01-07-2013 - Cert Denied.

    A complete synopsis of Nordyke can be found at the CalGuns Foundation Wiki:
    The decision is here:

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary at 9th Circuit
    TFL Thread
  • 02. Maloney v. Spitzer (was Rice)(pro se): Maloney was one of 3 2A cases before the Supreme Court, last year. After McDonald was decided, this case was GVR'd back to the 2nd Circuit where they vacated the Districts MTD and remanded. The plaintiff seeks to expand the definition of "arms" for 2A purposes and to have an injunction placed against New York Statutes that make mere possession a crime.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 03. Georgia Carry, Inc. v. Toomer: Filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Georgia, Atlanta Division. John Monroe, Attorney. This case seeks a declaratory judgment to invalidate the residency requirements of a Georgia Carry License. GCO lost in District Court (MTD granted to defendants on 03-13-2009). Appealed to the 11th Circuit where they ruled, per curiam, and affirmed the district courts dismissal.
    • The 11th Circuit, in a 2 pg per curiam order, affirmed the District Court's dismissal of the complaint, without prejudice. Should the facts of the dismissal change, the appellants may refile. This order was not published, as such, it is not precedent of any kind.

    Georgia Carry Summary (most all pleadings are here)
    Internet Archive (docket from district court with no pleadings)
    Justia Summary (11th Circuit index on case - Final decision can be viewed there)
    TFL Thread
  • 04. Dearth v. Holder (was Hodgkins v. Holder): Challenge to Federal residency requirements to acquire firearms. Appealed to the DC Circuit, March 2009. Federal District Court of District of Columbia. Alan Gura, attorney for plaintiff.
    • 03-27-2009 - Complaint filed
    • 06-26-2009 - MTD filed by defendant.
    • 01-05-2010 - District Court grants governments MTD.
    • 03-03-2011 - Notice of appeal to DC Circuit.
      • 07-29-2010 - (corrected) Opening Brief filed.
      • 08-20-2010 - US Government (Appellee) Response filed.
        09-03-2010 - Appellant Reply Brief Filed.
      • 04-15-2011 - Per Curiam Judgment filed. D.C. Circuit reverses and remands case. Dearth and the SAF have Standing. Partially negates "Standing" in Navgear.
    • 06-20-2011 - Defendant Holder answers the complaint.
    • 10-14-2011 - Plaintiffs file MSJ.
    • 11-21-2011 - Defendant files MJP. Defendant also files opposition to plaintiffs MSJ by cross-MSJ.
    • 12-30-2011 - Plaintiffs brief in opposition to defendants MJP and MSJ, filed.
    • 02-01-2012 - Defendants filed their reply.
    • 09-27-2012 - MSJ granted for Defendants.
    • 09-27-2012 - SAF/Alan Gura files Notice of Appeal.
      • 01-17-2013 - Briefing Schedule set: Appellants brief due on 02-08-2013. Appellees brief due on 03-11-2013 and Appellants Reply Brief due on 03-25-2013.
      • 02-08-2013 - Appellants filed their initial brief.
      • 03-11-2013 - Appellee's Brief filed.
      • 04-08-2013 - Appellant's reply brief filed. Completes briefing stage.
      • 06-25-2013 - Orals have been scheduled for Sept. 19, 2013.
      • 09-19-2013 - Orals held.
      • 01-10-2014 - Per Curiam Order: Parties are to file supplemental briefs on the following issues: (1) Whether non-resident Americans are “home” while visiting the United States; and (2) Whether the Second Amendment extends beyond the home. The supplemental briefs may not exceed 30 pages. Appellants’ supplemental brief is due on Monday, February 10, 2014, and appellee’s supplemental brief is due on Wednesday March 12, 2014.
      • 02-10-2014 - Appellant Files Supplemental Brief.
      • 02-12-2014 - NRA files Amicus brief.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    10-5062 CADC Docket
    10-5062 CADC Justia Summary
    12-5305 CADC Docket
    12-5305 CADC Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 05. Wisconsin Carry Inc, et al v. Doyle, et al: This case seeks to invalidate the Wisconsin Gun Free School Zone Act (1000 ft. rule). Filed on 01-08-2010 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Division. John Monroe (GA Carry), attorney.
    • 11-17-2011 - With the enactment of the WI Concealed Carry law, the case is dismissed with prejudice and no costs are attached. Of those plaintiffs that are still challenging the GFSZA, the cases were seperated and related. You will need a PACER account to access these cases, however, these cases were closed (11-17-2011) without prejudice and are listed here for completeness:

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 06. Heller v. District of Columbia: (AKA Heller II) D.C "Assault" weapons and Mag Limits. Lost at District court. Appealed to the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. March 2009. Stephan P. Halbrook and Richard E. Gardinar, attorneys for plaintiffs.
    • 03-26-2010 - Pltf's MSJ, denied. Dfdt's MSJ granted.
    • 04-02-2010 - Pltf's appeal to D.C. Circuit.
      • 10-04-2011 - District Court Decision, affirmed in part, vacated in part, and remanded the case for the presentation of “additional evidence” regarding certain of the District’s firearms-registration requirements.
    • 12-09-2011 - Joint Status Report (doc #38) filed.
    • 07-31-2012 - Third amended complaint filed.
    • 08-17-2012 - Answer to complaint is filed.
    • 09-19-2012 - Scheduling order is filed. Discovery ongoing until 03-25-2013.
    • 02-21-2013 - Motion to Amend/Correct Complaint (4th Amended Complaint)
    • 03-11-2013 - Memorandum in Opposition to Amend/Correct Complaint.
    • 03-17-2013 - Reply to Opposition.
    • 03-20-2013 - Order granting in part and denying in part for leave to file 4th Amended Complaint.
    • 03-28-2013 - Consent Motion to Dismiss Plaintiff Mark Snyder (moved out of D.C.).
    • 05-10-2013 - Motions to strike Expert Testimony for Mark D. Jones; Kathy L. Lanier; and Joseph J. Vince Jr. (docs 60, 61 and 62).
    • 05-23-2013 - Memorandum in Opposition to strike.
    • 06-27-2013 - Richard Gardiner withdrew as Attorney for Plaintiffs.
    • 07-08-2013 - Order Denying Motions to Strike (doc 68).
    • 11-05-2013 - MSJ filed for Defendants (doc 73 - see also exhibits A through M).
    • 12-10-2013 - MSJ filed for Plaintiffs (doc 75 - see also exhibits 1 thru 23).
    • 12-11-2013 - Plaintiffs filed brief in Opposition to Defendants MSJ (doc 77).
    • 01-15-2014 - Defendants filed their Opposition to Plaintiffs MSJ.
    • 05-15-2014 - Summary Judgment in favor of the Defendants. Plaintiffs case dismissed with prejudice.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    Justia Summary at D.C. Circuit
    TFL Thread
  • 07. Jacobs v. Reed: CA CCW. A Gorsky case. US District Court, Eastern Division. April 6, 2010.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 08. Pena v Lindley (was Cid): Challenge to CA (Safe) Roster of Handguns, April 2009. District Court for the Eastern District of California. Donald Kilmer, Jason Davis and Alan Gura, attorneys for plaintiffs. Currently, Stayed.
    • 12-13-2011 - Stay was lifted.
    • 12-20-2011 - Case is stayed pending the Nordyke en banc decision.
    • 08-01-2012 - Stay is lifted.
    • 08-23-2012 - Joint Status Report (doc #43).
    • 09-19-2012 - Scheduling Order. Discovery until 05-03-2013; Dispositive motions due 06-28-2013.
    • 03-26-2013 - Answer to the FAC is filed.
    • 05-23-2013 - Plaintiffs file a stipulated agreement for a Second Amended Complaint (SAC-Doc #49) and resetting of schedule.
    • 05-28-2013 - Court grants extension for discovery and SAC.
    • 06-10-2013 - Plaintiffs file SAC (Doc #53).

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 09. Richards v. Prieto (was Sykes v. McGinness): Licensed Carry in Yolo and Sacramento Counties (CA), May 2009. U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California. Donald Kilmer and Alan Gura, attorneys for plaintiffs.
    • Since the release of the 60 day hold (from McDonald), plaintiffs and Defendant McGuiness have been in settlement talks. Those discussions have reached an agreement making Sacramento County a virtual Shall Issue county. Self-defense will be accepted as "Good Cause" and the normal CCW background check will be sufficient as to "Good Moral Character."
    • Lost at District, immediately appealed to the 9th.
      • Motion was made to relate Peruta at Oral Arguments.
      • Motion was opposed by Peruta.
      • Motion was denied. However, if practicable, Orals may be heard by the same panel.
      • Opening Brief by Plaintiffs due on Aug. 24th. Response by Defendants due by Sept. 23rd. Plaintiffs reply to the response is due by Oct. 7th.
      • Defendants filed their Response on Thursday Sept. 22.
      • 10-25-2011 - Pltf's filed their reply brief.
      • 12-20-2011 - Case is stayed pending the Nordyke en banc decision.
      • 06-19-2012 - Stay is lifted.
      • 10-09-2012 - Orals are scheduled for 12-06-2012.
      • 10-29-2012 - Defendants file 28(J) letter - Notice of supplemental Authority.
      • 02-13-2014 - Both Plaintiffs and Defendants file opposing 28J letters in re Peruta..
      • 03-05-2014 - In an unpublished opinion, the CA9 holds for Richards.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    11-16255 CA9 Docket
    Justia Summary at 9th Circuit
    TFL Thread
  • 10. Jackson v San Francisco: Challenges San Francisco Gun storage, May 2009. U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. C.D. Michel, Don Kates, Glenn McRoberts and Hillary Green, attorneys for plaintiffs.
    • 09-28-2011 Judge denied the defendants Motion to Dismiss and granted leave for plaintiffs to amend a possibly mooted claim.
    • 10-04-2011 - NOTICE, Plaintiffs will not ammend.
    • 10-17-2011 - Defendants answer the complaint.
    • 11-18-2011 - CASE MANAGEMENT SCHEDULING ORDER. Further Case Management Conference set for 8/23/2012 10:00 AM.; Pretrial Conference set for 2/14/2013 10:00 AM; Jury Selection set for 2/25/2013 09:00 AM; Jury Trial set for 2/25/2013 09:00 AM in Courtroom 3, 17th Floor, San Francisco before Hon. Richard Seeborg. Signed by Judge Richard Seeborg on 11/18/11. (cl, COURT STAFF) (Filed on 11/18/2011).
    • 05-17-2012 - Plaintiff files a Motion for Partial Judgment of the Pleadings (MJP).
    • 06-07-2012 - SanFran files opposition to MJP.
    • 07-12-2012 - Hearing on the plaintiffs MJP was held and the Motion is taken under advisement.
    • 08-17-2012 - MJP was denied.
    • 08-30-2012 - Plaintiffs filed for a preliminary injunction (MPI).
    • 09-13-2012 - Defendants Opposition to MPI.
    • 09-20-2012 - Plaintiffs reply to opposition.
    • 10-09-2012 - Hearing held on MPI.
    • 11-26-2012 - MPI is denied.
    • 12-21-2012 - Plaintiffs noticed Appeal
    • 12-27-2012 - Stipulated motion to stay further proceedings while at appeal.
    • 12-31-2012 - Order staying case at district.
      • 01-03-2013 - Stipulated motion to modify briefing schedule.
      • 01-08-2013 - Order granting modified briefing order in part.
      • 02-07-2013 - Opening brief is filed.
      • 02-14-2913 - Four amici briefs in support are filed.
      • 03-07-2013 - Appellee files its brief in opposition.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    Justia Summary at 9th Circuit
    Michel & Assoc. Gun Case Tracker
    TFL Thread
  • 11. Palmer v. District of Columbia: Licensed Carry in District of Columbia, August 2009. U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. Alan Gura, attorney for plaintiffs. A Motion for Summary Judgment was filed by the plaintiffs. Cross Motion for MSJ was filed by the defendants. Presumably, the Judge was waiting for McDonald to be settled before ruling on the motions at bar. The ruling on the MSJ is now very overdue.
    • 07-18-2011, Case has been reassigned to Judge Scullin (NYND) by CJ John Roberts.
    • 07-18-2011 - Alan Gura files notice of Supplemental Authority (Ezell).
    • 03-07-2012 - Gura notices Woolard and Weaver.
    • 03-08-2012 - 12-11-2012 - Numerous motions of supplemental authorities and response. Along with motions to strike and opposition motions. See the docket.
    • 08-09-2013 - Motion to Expedite is filed by Plaintiffs.
    • 10-22-2013 - Writ of Mandamus filed with the DCCA.
    • 02-18-2014 - Plaintiffs notice Peruta.
    • 05-06-2014 - 2nd Writ of Mandamus filed with the DCCA.
    • 07-26-2014 - Decision and Order. Plaintiffs granted Summary Judgment.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    Old TFL Thread
    New TFL Thread
  • 12. Pizzo v. Newsom: Gorski case (pro se). US District Court, Northern Division, Sept. 23, 2009. San Francisco CCW & Trigger Locks. This case was copied almost verbatim from the Jackson (see #10, above) case. It is one that the County and City of San Francisco has been using against Jackson.
    • 05-05-2011 - The NRA was granted status as Amicus Curiae. This allows the NRA to protect its interests in the Jackson case.
      [*}06-07-2012 - LCAV motions to file as amicus.
    • 06-14-2012 - Plaintiffs file MSJ.
    • 07-02-2012 - Defendants Opposition and cross-MSJ.
    • 07-02-2012 - Brady Center Motions to file as amicus.
    • 07-03-2012 - Defendants file amended cross-MSJ.
    • 07-04-2012 - Brady Center denied amicus.
    • 07-18-2012 - Brief of amicus NRA for neither party.
    • 08-30-2012 - Hearing held on plaintiffs MSJ and Defendants cross-MSJ.
    • 12-05-2012 - Plaintiffs MSJ denied (NRA recommended - No Standing) and Defendants MSJ granted.
    • 01-24-2013 - Order granting Dismissal of City and County of San Francisco (Gorski avoids paying their attorney fees, preparatory to filing an appeal on the State)

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 13. Peruta v. County of San Diego: Licensed Carry in San Diego County, October 2009. U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California. C.D. Michel and Paul H. Neuharth, attorneys for plaintiffs. A Motion for Partial Summary Judgment was filed by the plaintiffs on Sept. 3, 2010, along with a Cross Motion by the defendants. Motions will be argued on or near Nov. 1, 2010.
    • 12-10-2010 - Plaintiffs Motion for Partial Summary Judgment, Denied.
    • Defendants Motion for Summary Judgment, Granted.
    • Plaintiffs appealed to 9th Circuit.
      • Plaintiffs moved in opposition to have a related case (Richards) heard (aligned on Oral Arguments) on the same day.
      • Defendants have until August 12 to file a response. Plaintiffs may reply by Sept. 6th.
      • Motion to hear (related) cases, denied.
      • Plaintiffs filed a brief on Supplemental Authorities (Ezell).
      • 12-20-2011 - Case is stayed pending the Nordyke en banc decision.
      • 06-19-2012 - Stay lifted.
      • 12-06-2012 - Orals at CA9 heard.
      • 02-13-2014 - Decision in favor of Peruta. Reversed and Remanded to District for a decision consistant with this opinion

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    Justia Summary at 9th Circuit
    TFL Thread
  • 14. Peterson v. Suthers (was Martinez, was Kilroy, was Garcia, originally LaCabe): Licensed Carry in The City and County of Denver for non-residents(but will affect all of CO), January 2010. U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado. John R. Monroe (Georgia Carry Inc) attorney for plaintiff.
    • 03-08-2011 - Judgment for the State. Plaintiff case dismissed.
    • Plaintiff appealed to 10th Circuit
      • City of Denver (Garcia) failed to file a response to the complaint. This leaves Gray with having to defend against the State. Denver has no further say in this court.
      • Plaintiff will reply to the States response by Aug. 8th.
      • Oral arguments to be heard Nov. 17th
      • Second round of Oral arguments will be heard on March 19th. Amici have been invited to share time in the orals. 15 minutes will be given to the opposing sides with 20 minutes reserved to amici. The Brady's will have 10 minutues and the NRA and SAF will each have 5 minutes. Alan Gura will speak on behalf of the SAF.
      • 03-07 and 03-08-2012 - Notices were made as to the decisions in Woollard and Weaver.
        03-19-2012 - Oral argument heard.
        02-22-2013 - Decision against Peterson. Lower Court Affirmed.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    Justia Summary at 10th Circuit
    TFL Thread
  • 15. Bateman v. Perdue: Challenge to NC regulations that prohibit carry and sales of firearms during declared emergencies. U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina. Alan Gura, Kearns Davis and Andrew Tripp, attorneys for plaintiffs.
    • 03-29-2012 - Judge Howard Grants Plaintiffs MSJ, Denies Defendants MTD and cross-MSJ. Strikes down the N.C. Emergency Powers Act prohibitions on firearms outside the home.
    • 04-08-2012 - Time to file appeal has run out. Ruling stands as law in NC.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 16. State Ammunition v. Lindley: Challenge of AB962, Handgun Ammunition Regulations (CA), June 2010. U.S. District court for the Eastern District of California. Kevin Chaffin, attorney for plaintiffs.
    • 12-02-2010 - Judge Morrison C. England, Jr dismissed both OOIDA v. Lindley and State Ammunition v. Lindley as not being ripe.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 17. Kachalsky v. Cacase: Challenges "Good Cause" in New York State. U.S. District Court for the Southern Distict of New York. June 2010. Alan Gura and Vincent Gelardi, attorneys for plaintiffs.
    • 09-06-2011 - Judge Siebel grants the defendants summary Judgment against the plaintiffs, sua sponte (on her own accord, without prior motions or requests).
      • 09-07-2011 - Plaintiffs file a notice of appeal to the 2nd Circuit.
      • 11-09-2011 - Opening brief filed.
      • 12-30-2011 - Cross-Appellee Susan Cacace, et al will file their Reply Brief by 02-08-2012.
      • 02-03-2012 - Cross-Appellee Westchester County filed their Response Brief.
      • 02-08-2012 - Cross-Appellee Susan Cacace filed their Response Brief
      • 02-22-2012 - Plaintiffs will file their Reply by 04-03-2012.
      • 04-03-2012 - Appellant/Plaintiffs have filed the final reply.
      • 05-16-2012 - Oral arguments set for 08-22-2012.
      • 08-22-2012 - Orals were heard.
      • 11-27-2012 - The decision of the district court is affirmed.
        • 01-08-2013 - Petition for Certiorari to the SCOTUS was filed.
        • 04-15-2013 - Certiorari Denied.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    Justia Summary at 2nd Circuit
    TFL Thread
  • 18. Benson v. Chicago: Challenge to the new gun laws of Chicago by the NRA. July 2010. U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division. Charles J. Cooper, David H. Thompson, Jesse Panuccio, Brian S. Koukoutchos and Stephen Kolodziej, attorneys for plaintiffs.
    • 07-06-2010 - Complaint filed.
    • 08-13-2010 - First amended complaint filed.
    • 08-20-2010 - Motion to relate case to Ezell.
    • 08-30 2010 - Response in Opposition by Ezell.
    • 10-12-2010 - Answer to amended complaint.
    • 12-03-2010 - Motions to reassign are denied. Discovery begins.
    • 02-09-2011 - Second amended complaint is filed.
    • 03-02-2012 - Chicago files an MSJ.
    • 04-27-2012 - Plaintiffs file a cross-MSJ.
    • 05-21-2012 - Chicago motions to stay proceedings for a decision in Moore/Sheppard.
    • 05-23-2012 - Plaintiffs file Opposition to stay.
    • 05-24-2012 - Motion to stay, denied.
    • 06-29-2012 - Chicago response to Plaintiffs MSJ.
    • 07-16-2012 - Plaintiffs reply to Chicago's Opposition.
    • 12-18-2012 - Judge Chang Orders all parties to brief how the decision in Moore affects this case.
    • 01-04-2013 - Plaintiffs file their supplemental brief.
    • 01-04-2013 - Defendants file their supplemental brief.
    • 01-15-2013 - Defendants file MSJ.
    • 01-15-2013 - Plaintiffs file MSJ.
    • 02-08-2013 - Motion by Defendants to reassign case to Hall v Chicago.
    • 04-02-2013 - Motion to reassign is denied.
    • 07-09-2013 - Judge Chang wants supplemental briefing on the new carry law.
    • 01-06-2014 - Summary Judgment is granted to Plaintiffs and denied to defendants.
    • 01-13-2014 - City files a motion to Stay Judgment for 180 days to craft laws regulating sales of firearms.
    • 01-14-2014 - Court enters a Permanent Injunction, but stays effective date until 07-14-2014 (follows 7th Circuit in Moore).

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
  • 19. GeorgiaCarry.Org, Inc., et al v. State of Georgia: Challenges State law (O.C.G.A. §16-1-127(b)(4)) banning carry in Churches. Initially filed in State Court, but removed to Federal Court by defendants. Filed July, 2010, Amended Complaint filed Aug. 19, 2010 in the US District Court, Middle District of Georgia, Macon Division. John Monroe, attorney for the plaintiffs. All case filings are at the link above.
    • The majority of the briefs can be found here at GeorgiaCarry, and so while the Internet Archive docket shows the transactions, no briefs have been downloaded there.
    • 01-24-2011 - District Court Upheld the State Law and dismissed the case.
    • 01-26-2011 - Appealed to the 11th Circuit.
      • 08-18-2011 - Oral argument scheduled. Argument Date: Thursday, 10/06/2011
      • 07-20-2012 - Opinion issued. Defendants MTD in District Court has been upheld.
        • 10-15-2012 - Petition for Certiorari filed.
        • 01-07-2013 - Certiorari Denied.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    Justia Summary at 11th Circuit
    TFL Thread
  • 20. Second Amendment Arms et al v. City of Chicago et al: This case challenges just about everything in the Chicago gun ordinances and even attempts to make it a class action suit (3rd claim for relief, 1st amended complaint - Item #6 on the docket). Filed on 07-09-2010 in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. Walter Maksym, attorney for the plaintiffs.

    Internet Archive
    Justia Summary
    TFL Thread
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