View Full Version : Jerky Recipes?

April 13, 2012, 12:38 AM
We haven't had a good jerky recipe thread in quite some time. (Previous threads, if you're interested: "Jerky Recipe" search (http://thefiringline.com/forums/search.php?searchid=6046536).)

Since I've been buried up to my elbows in meat and seasoning for much of the day, I figured I'd try to poll the currently active members for their latest jerky recipes.

What've ya got?

I have a few new recipes I'll add in a separate post.

April 13, 2012, 01:38 AM
I have been working on a few recipes lately. Here, I'll post the recipes for strips. Once I work out the final details for my latest experiment, I'll try to post the burger recipes.

The first one is a derivative of Alton Brown's beef jerky recipe (http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/alton-brown/beef-jerky-recipe/index.html):
1.5 to 2 lbs red meat (venison, beef, buffalo, whatever.. as long as it's red)
2/3 Cup Worcestershire Sauce
2/3 Cup Soy Sauce
1 to 2 Tablespoon Honey (exceeding 2 Tbsp makes it too sweet)
2 teaspoon Onion Powder
2 teaspoon Fresh Ground Pepper (I use a "peppercorn medley" (http://www.peppermills.com/items/sea-salt~peppercorns/SUPREME-PEPPERCORN-MEDLEY-detail.htm))
1 teaspoon Liquid Smoke
1 teaspoon Tony Chacheres Creole Seasoning (the original recipe calls for 1 tsp Crushed Red Pepper)

Slice the meat with the grain, into 1/8" to 1/4" thick strips. Mix everything up, and marinate for 4-6 hours in the refrigerator. When done, lay the strips out on paper towels or a kitchen towels, and pat dry with another towel on top. Dry with your preferred method.

I have been experimenting with Alton's method. It works quite well. ;)
(Follow the link above, and watch the video.)

FrankenMauser's Creole Jerky:
Per lb of meat, cut into 1/8" to 1/4" thick strips or 3/8" cubes
1/4 Cup Worcestershire Sauce
1/8 Cup Red Cooking Wine (I prefer a Marsala)
3 teaspoons Tony Chachere's Creole Seasoning (mild spice - even my wife will eat it)
-or 6 teaspoons Creole Seasoning (proper "medium" spice - my wife won't touch it)
-or if you want it "flaming hot", drop back to 4 tsp of Creole Seasoning, but augment it with 1 tsp cayenne pepper, 1 tsp fresh ground pepper, and 1 tsp crushed red peppers
1 teaspoon Rubbed Sage
2/3 teaspoon Onion Powder
A dash of Liquid Smoke
1 Tablespoon Honey or Corn Syrup (for moisture and mild sweetness alone, use Corn Syrup; for moisture, sweetness, and flavor, use Honey)

Note: The salt in the Creole Seasoning more than makes up for the lack of soy sauce in this recipe. Don't add any soy or any more salt, or you'll regret it.

Marinate 4-8 hours, before dehydrating.
For even more spice, sprinkle with black, white, and red (cayenne) pepper, before starting the dryer/fan/oven/whatever.

FrankenMauser's basic Plains Game treatment:
(Designed for Pronghorn Antelope, but works with any venison - probably beef, too.)
Per lb of meat, cut into 1/8" to 1/4" thick strips
1/4 Cup Soy Sauce
1/4 Cup Worcestershire Sauce
1/2 teaspoon Liquid Smoke
1 teaspoon Fresh Ground Pepper
1 teaspoon Rubbed Sage
1/2 teaspoon Onion Powder
1/8 teaspoon Garlic Powder
dash Celery Salt

Marinate 3-5 hours before dehydrating.
If you have some particularly strong-flavored meat (such as with bucks), soak the meat in a standard brine for 12-24 hours, before marinating. Then, cut the soy to 1/8 cup for the marinade, and marinate for 5+ hours.

Crazy Cajun Limon:
This recipe came from a Creole/Cajun half-breed friend of mine, that makes his living in the Atchafalaya swamp(s). His family developed the recipe for deer, but it is great for Elk, too. It is fairly different from standard recipes, in that it ends up with a mildly tart, very citrusy, yet still teriyaki-ish flavor.

Per lb of meat, cut into 1/8" to 1/4" thick strips
1/4 Cup Soy Sauce
1/8 Cup Lime Juice
1/8 Cup Lemon Juice
1/3 teaspoon Liquid Smoke
1-1/2 teaspoon Fresh Ground Pepper
1 Tablespoon Corn Syrup (this is here for moisture retention and mild sweetness - if you want flavor, too, use honey)

Marinate for 4-8 hours, before dehydrating.

FrankenMauser's recipes were developed with Alton Brown's redneck dehydrator:


April 13, 2012, 07:08 AM
Mine is simple. I slice about 1/4" thin, marinade in Teryake sauce for several hours the hang with tootpicks in oven at 200 degrees until it is just right, not too dry. Of course put something in the bottom of oven to catch drippings or you will catch 'it' from the wife.
Other times I have simply rubbed with coarse salt and pepper then jerked.

April 13, 2012, 08:49 AM
Most of my jerky comes out pretty much the same no matter how I vary the marinade mixture. The difference is in what I put on after the marinade. My all-time favorite is to sprinkle the meat with lemon pepper just before putting it onto the dehydrator.

April 13, 2012, 04:19 PM
Dear sweet jeebus! I opened this thread in hopes of mentioning Alton Brown's recipe and process, but it's already been done! Kudos, sir!

The box fan method, btw, makes some really good jerky...

April 14, 2012, 04:48 AM
I take a hind leg of antelope,bone the round steak section out of it.Put the end grain of the big end down on a cutting board or clean countertop,and using a large razor sharp filet knife parrallel to the cutting board,make 1/4 in thin,or thinner "round steaks"

I lay them all out on a sterilized countertop,and,based on the weight of the meat,put the recomended amount of Morton Tender Quick curing salt in a shaker and uniformly apply it to both sides.Then I put it all in a bus tub or plastic dish pan for a couple of days in the fridge to cure.

The I take it out,spread it out on clean surface,and the seasoning I used was dried chipotle peppers,powderized in a coffee grinder.(its an interesting experience if you do not remember to clean the coffee grinder.)

Just a sprinkle and a little dry rub.

Then I use a barrel smoker to cool smoke it,no water pan,about 4 hours,till its a little leathery and smoke flavored.I finish it to dry in a food dehydrator.

I like all different kinds of jerky,but my intent on this stuff is about keeping qualities.The more seasoned up stuff tastes real good,but I was thinking the more moist teriyaki type stuff may not stay good as long.

April 19, 2012, 03:35 PM
I gave up on all of the other burger recipes I was experimenting with, after this one proved to be an absolute home run:

For Ground or Chopped meats:
Per 5 lb of meat
1/3 Cup Worcestershire Sauce
2 tsp Soy Sauce
2 tsp Liquid Smoke
1/8 Cup Corn Syrup (for sweetness and moisture retention)
1/8 Cup Honey (for flavor, sweetness, and moisture retention)
5 tsp Tender Quick
1 tsp Celery Salt
1/2 tsp Garlic Powder
1-1/2 tsp Onion Powder
2 Tablespoons Rubbed Sage
2-1/2 tsp Fresh Ground Pepper
1-1/2 tsp Crushed Red Pepper

For Mild flavor, that everyone can enjoy:
-Combine all wet ingredients, and all dry ingredients except for the Crushed Red Pepper and 1.5 tsp Fresh Ground Pepper. Mix into meat, thoroughly. Cover tightly with plastic wrap directly against the meat and allow to cure in your refrigerator in a casserole dish or large bowl, for 24 hours.
-After 24 hours, add the Crushed Red Pepper and additional 1.5 tsp of Fresh Ground Pepper. Mix thoroughly, and cure for another 24 hours.
-After another 24 hours, mix thoroughly, and dry as desired. I prefer rolling the meat out into sheets approximately 3/16" thick, then cutting strips out with a scraper or pizza cutter.

For a slightly more spicy product (but still very tame):
-Mix up all ingredients, except for the meat and Tender Quick, in a small container. Cover tightly, and alloy the liquid to draw some heat out of the crushed red pepper, overnight. (This works much better, for a more balanced flavor, than just adding more of the pepper.)
-The next day, mix in the meat and Tender Quick. As with the "mild" method, cure for 24 hours in your refrigerator.
-After 24 hours, mix thoroughly. Cure another 24 hours.
-Mix thoroughly, and dry as desired.

April 19, 2012, 09:00 PM
Some excellent sounding recipe's indeed.

Has anyone thought of making a chipotle jerky?

For those familiar with Rooster's Restaurant and their chipotle chicken wings, they are off the hook. You can buy their sauces by the jar and I'm thinking of doing some jerky in their chipotle sauce this year.

Sure Shot Mc Gee
April 19, 2012, 09:02 PM

Glock Guy
April 19, 2012, 10:11 PM
Y'all are making my mouth water. I can't wait til this weekend I'm trying these for sure.

April 19, 2012, 10:35 PM
No more Chipotle. I am choptle'd out. Every half-assed chef on TV is putting Chopotle's in everything from chicken fricasee to pomme frites.... Enough! Stop! No Mas!

April 19, 2012, 10:51 PM
Sliced lean beef
Brown sugar (1 tsp per pound of meat)
Salt (1 tsp per pound of meat)
Fresh ground black pepper (1/2 tsp per pound of meat)

Mix it up in a freezer bag or plastic bowl, and refrigerate (covered) overnight. Then dehydrate it; not too hot because you don't want to cook it. If you're an overachiever, smoke it instead of using a dehydrator -- not too hot, you don't want to cook it.

April 20, 2012, 07:32 AM
For those of you who want to make good jerky and are tired of paying the high price of lean beef, I'll share with you my best tip - don't use beef. Use pork. I use the whole pork loins from Sams (about $2/lb). Once you cut off the top cap fat layer, you have almost 100% pure meat. I save the fat layer (freeze it in vacuum sealed bags) for making sausage. It tastes just as good as beef and costs about 1/5 the price.

April 20, 2012, 10:25 AM
Chopotle French fries ....that's a new one

Sure Shot Mc Gee
April 20, 2012, 10:50 AM

Batch calls for sliced lean Flank steak or Top or Bottom cut of sirloin (roast.) 2-4 lbs. The leaner cuts of meat make the Best Jerky. Turkey breast qualify's too.
Cut of meat to be used should be in a semi frozen state enough to allow for easy cutting.
Remove as much fat from the meats surface as you can before slicing into 1/8th-1/4" thick strips.
For best results cut meat "long >with the grain" Not against its grain. Reason too: Chewier.
Remember this red meat will indeed exhibit shrinkage after processing.

2-TBL Wrights (brand) Liquid Smoke.
1-TBL Garlic Power.
1-TBL Black Pepper.
1-TBL Accent (band) food flavor enhancer
2-TBL Jane’s Mixed-up Crazy Salt (brand)
1-Med Onion chopped coarsely.
½ cup Soy Sauce
¼ cup of Worcestershire Sauce
2-cups (cold) Tap water
2-TBL Molasses or (Dark Brown Sugar) Can use Splenda at 1/2 or 2/3s measured amount listed.
Recipe makes about 1 quart of brine. Remember to save about 1/2 of your brine mix for the 3rd days soaking period.

For a Hot Jerky add one item only of the following:
1-teas Dried Red Hot Peppers.
1-teas Tabasco Hot Sauce.
1-teas Louisiana Hot Sauce.
1-small Hot Banana Pepper.

Put entire Brine Mixture into a Blender and blend until onion looks pulpy looking.
Layer meat in a tightly covered Tupperware bowl. Splash a little brine in-between each layer. Criss/crossing each layer.
Keep meat refrigerated at all times while brine'ing
Shake the meat up at least -- 2-3 times a day during its brine’ing period.
Change brine on the 3rd day again layering meat back into the bowl. Let meat soak 1- additional day in new brine. Shake meat 1-2 times more on the last day.
Do not wipe or rinse the meat. Let meat drip-dry onto news paper, paper toweling, even clean grocery paper bags will work prior to drying or smoking.
Keep your Jerky refrigerated to help hold its freshness.

This is a strong good tasting jerky mix. One of the first recipes I tried years ago and still make occasionally. "Kids love it."

April 24, 2012, 03:49 AM
shortwave,see post 6.FWIW,been using chipotles since long before they were popular.But,yeah,they are not for everything.An Ancho is another favorite of mine.Its another deep,big flavor chili.For a good crispy hot,pequin is a good one.I also like a simple black pepper jerky.IMO,sliced,cured,and smoked is good as is.It needs nothing.

I have not made any,myself,but I have had Canada Goose jerky that was excellent.

Jerky is sort of like chili....A whole lot of ways to have fun,and a whole lot of ways to eat good.

I like simple meat,chilis,cumin,garlic,maybe onion chili.Sort of like you might make from a simple chuck kitchen,but some folks make real good chili going to four supermarkets to find all the ingredients.Regardless,its not that often I have had bad chili,or bad jerky.

Have fun!

April 24, 2012, 05:46 AM
shortwave,see post 6.

...Oooops.... Guess I need to read a bit more carefully. :o

Yours, and all the recipe's sound fantastic.

The chipotle sauce Rooster's (the restaurant) makes and sells for their chicken has a unique flavor and is great. Kinda a sweet and sour,chipotle/smoke flavor if you will.
Since it's a sauce instead of a rub, I'm wondering about marinading the deer in it and of coarse applying a layer of sauce prior to smoking.
Can't wait to try.

April 25, 2012, 11:28 PM
Solid Muscle or Sliced Jerky Recipe

1) Slice 3 pounds of venison round with the grain approximately 1/4" to 3/8" thick.

2) Tip: Chill the meat for about 60 to 90 minutes prior to slicing will help your slices remain more uniform in thickness.

Note: After drying your jerky, your 3 pounds of start weight will weigh about 1 ½ to 1 ¾ pounds.


1 tablespoon salt
1 level teaspoon quick cure. Get this at your local butcher shop or butcher Supply Company. This is an important ingredient because your jerky will be drying at low temperatures.
1 teaspoon onion powder
1 teaspoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon ground black pepper
1/4 cup soy sauce
1/3 cup Worcestershire sauce
1 teaspoon concentrated liquid smoke. This is optional and is used if you are using a dehydrator and want a smoky flavor

3) Mix the spices together in large bowl.

4) Coat the individual slices of meat with the marinade mixture by dipping both sides into the marinate mixture. Make sure all surfaces have been covered. After dipping, place the meat slice into a large zip-top bag.

5) Pour excess marinate liquid over meat in the zip-top bag. Close zip lock.

6) Place bag in refrigerator for at least 24 hours.

7) Tip: Make sure you mix the meat and marinade at least two times during its 24 hour soak. This will insure all pieces have absorbed the marinade equally.

Oven Method:

1) Turn heat on oven to its lowest temperature.

2) Take meat out of refrigerator.

3) Place meat onto oven racks or clean metal screen. Keep 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch space between slices. Do not allow slices to overlap or the overlapped areas will not dry.

4) Place racks with jerky meat into the oven.

5) Leave the oven door cracked open to allow steam to escape. Let jerky dry for approximately 6 hours or to desired dryness. Oven drying times will vary, so make sure to check the dryness of the jerky every hour or so. Do not leave your oven on, unattended if you are making jerky, plan to be home to watch it.

I like to heat the Jerky at 160° for the first hour or so….then reduce heat to 140° until the meat is sufficiently dry.

There are tons of different Jerky recipes out there….it is something you will want to experiment with. The recipe above is very basic and does not include everything I use in mine, but it will get you started….and make very good Jerky.

Additional ingredients used in the mix I make:

1 teaspoon white pepper

1 tablespoon Tony Chachere’s Creole seasoning.

½ teaspoon Cayenne Pepper (more if you like it really hot).

½ teaspoon TexJoy BBQ seasoning rub.

¼-½ teaspoon TexJoy Old West Mesquite shake (don’t get carried with this).

1 teaspoon LaRue’s Dillo Dust. (Hard to find, might get some on eBay).

I don't recommend placing the pieces flat on the oven racks because they don't dry/heat evenly. I like to hang them using toothpicks and suspend them vertically.

After preparing your spices and dipping each piece (both sides), place it in a large Zip-Lock bag. Pour any remaining mix over the top and let it Marinate overnight (or longer).

Remove from the bag and place flat on a piece of Butcher Paper/Wax Paper. Lightly sprinkle (one side only) with Coarse Ground Pepper (white or black). You can always scrape off any excess pepper when you are eating it IF it is too hot, but you can't add pepper once the meat is dried.

Place a toothpick about 1/2" down from the top of each piece of meat. If the piece of meat is thicker at one end, let the thick end hang down.
Place on the rack...leaving at least 1/4" space between each piece of meat, DON'T let them touch.

Start the heat at 160° for the first hour, this will kill any bacteria in the meat (if thicker than 3/8"...go for 2 hours), then turn the heat down to around 140° and check the meat every hour or so.

It will probably take at least 4 hours (more likely six hours) and could go longer. Some smaller pieces might need to be removed before the others. You want the Jerky to be dried to the point where it will bend but not break.

When done, let the Jerky cool (breathe) for about an hour before packaging. Otherwise it will condensate (especially if put in plastic) and will mildew later.

It should last just fine for at least 2 weeks even if you leave it out on the counter. You can refrigerate it or freeze it to make it last longer, but honestly, if you make GOOD jerky, it isn't going to be around long enough to spoil.

IMPORTANT: Be sure to use lean pieces of meat with NO visible trace of fat. The fat will turn rancid later if it exists in any appreciable amount.

Experiment with spices, there is a plethora of good Jerky recipes out there and everyone likes something different. The recipe I gave you happens to be what I like, but if you process Jerky properly (dry it), its pretty hard to screw up.

Most everyone likes Jerky and it’s rare that you will get a complaint no matter what you put on it.






April 27, 2012, 07:27 AM
Flintknapper, I find it interesting that you store your jerky in a simple glass container. The only way I have been able to store mine more than a week or so without mold growing is to use vacuum sealed bags and freeze them. I would love to find a way to make mine storable in a jar without molding.

April 27, 2012, 12:01 PM
Hi Doyle,

Not sure what to tell you, I store my jerky one of several ways, but have never experienced mold growth on any of it.

1. Short term (less than two weeks) simple paper bags with slits cut in them to allow air to enter and escape.

2. Medium term (4-6 weeks) glass jar with loose fitting lid.

3. Long term (2-12 months) heavy ply freezer bags, stored in freezer.

I am careful to insure the jerky is sufficiently dry (internally) before storage.. as well as letting it cool and "breathe" for a couple of hours.

In order to avoid mold (most molds) you will need to avoid moisture and air, though air by itself is not a bad thing...provided it can semi-circulate around the jerky.

To that end...the meat must me thoroughly dried (I know you know), allowed to cool (so no condensate forms), allowed to "breath" (any external moisture dissipate). After that...it can be stored successfully for quite awhile.

Of course, atmospheric conditions come into play. Where you and I live...it is typically humid (outside) most of the year, so jerky will not fare as well as it would in say....Arizona. ;)

I don't normally freeze much jerky, simply because it doesn't stand a "snowballs chance" of lasting very long around my house. It is usually consumed in a matter of days/weeks.

April 27, 2012, 03:59 PM
I recall having a problem with condensation ,as in pulling a plastic jar out of the freezer,opening it,and then returning it to the freezer.Do that a few times,you build up some frost.

Then,if you should decide to just pull the jar out,say for a hunt or road trip,you have a jar full of wet jerky.
Not something I will need to learn twice

Brian Pfleuger
April 27, 2012, 04:45 PM
Mine is simple.

Marinate in 50/50 mix of Italian dressing and A1 sauce for at least 24 hours. Maybe add a little liquid smoke.

Jerkify. Done.

April 29, 2012, 10:17 AM
Hey Frankenmauser, are you drying with the oven set on low, or is it the top burners, explain this contraption..:confused: I really dig this kinda "do it yourself" stuff.... see if it's real good, and real easy, I'll have my kids doing it for me, so as to not loose valuable loading and testing time,,,, and fishing time,,,, and beer drinking time.:rolleyes:

April 29, 2012, 10:56 PM
Hey Frankenmauser, are you drying with the oven set on low, or is it the top burners, explain this contraption.

I don't use heat. I have the fan sitting on the stove because I can lay it flat, but still have generous air flow (it's a 5-burner gas stove with a two-piece grill that covers the whole stove). I could accomplish the same thing by setting it on top of some upturned glasses or a couple 2x4s on edge, but the stove is easier. ;)

As for the 'contraption'...
It's just the prepared meat strips placed in the folds of clean furnace filters, strapped to a box fan. If I run the same meat in the furnace filters and a standard dehydrator (set to 105 degrees) at the same time, the fan and filters method only takes about an hour longer. However... it never warms up. So, I can package as soon as the jerky is done, without the rest time required with heated setups.

If I planned to reuse those filters for drying meat, I would have bought 20x20s to fit the fan better. But, I buy filters that fit my furnace. When I need to make more jerky, I'll buy new filters. ;)

May 6, 2012, 07:40 PM

garlic salt or garlic
steak seasoning (flakes)
soy or teriyaki sauce
lawry's seasoning salt
curing salt (quick)
celery salt
pepperoncini juice
mustard seed
Lemon pepper and a little juice

September 23, 2012, 09:13 PM
I prepped a couple batches of jerky today, and I actually had to come back to this thread for the last version of one of my recipes. :rolleyes:

I figured I'd post an update.

After the last batch of jerky was finished, I bagged everything and refrigerated it for a longer shelf life. It gave me a chance to see how well these recipes age.

I don't recommend the "Crazy Cajun Limon" recipe, unless it will be consumed within a couple weeks. It does not age well, and loses taste after 4-5 weeks (even refrigerated).

The Creole recipe also doesn't age well, as it gets incredibly crispy after a couple weeks. Perhaps with more of one of the hygroscopic ingredients (Honey/Corn Syrup/Brown Sugar), it would retain more moisture. But, the current recipe is definitely not one to use for storage.

Both taste good, when fresh. They just aren't a good choice for any kind of storage.

My "Plains Game" and burger recipes, however, are still great after being slowly eaten from the refrigerator for the last 5 months.

On a separate note....
My wife wants me to come up with a recipe for Taco-flavored jerky. :eek:

September 23, 2012, 10:18 PM
Thanks for the update....and starting this thread.

Have enjoyed a few of these recipe's over the summer and will continue the same for a long time.

September 24, 2012, 09:19 PM
Just the old recipe for me. Meat, garlic powder, salt, and black pepper.

Deja vu
September 24, 2012, 10:02 PM
I marinade in2 parts DR Pepper and 1 part bottle of sliced jalapenios (liquid and all) then smoke it over apple wood.

September 27, 2012, 07:54 PM
I use ground meat and a cabelas "jerky gun".
Favorite I've tried so far is to use Hi mountain "bourbon bbq" cure and seasoning, and then after I make the strips I coat them with Cajun Heritage "Cajun Blast" season rub before curing them in the oven.
I got both items at Gander Mountain but I'm sure you could find them other places.

September 28, 2012, 01:53 PM
Why did I look at this thread while I was hungry and when there is not a piece of venison left in the freezer...........and our season is a month off???

Printed a couple of them.......man are you guys good!!!!

September 28, 2012, 02:01 PM
My grandson is the meat manager/cutter for a local grocery store when they put either top or bottom round on sale I have him pick a piece of meat that looks lean enough he slices it and the I use Hi-Mountain jerky rubs, I like the original but others are good also. I smoke them in my Traeger grill.

September 28, 2012, 03:07 PM
I did a whole pork loin into jerky over the Labor Day weekend and froze it in vacuum sealed pouches. My wife has been snacking on it so much that it is almost gone.

Here is one benefit to using pork loin (other than the significant cost savings) - I took the trimmings (fat, marbled meat, and odd-shaped lean pieces that weren't big enough for jerky) and ground them up into sausage. I got 16 nice breakfast sausage patties out of the waste.

December 27, 2016, 03:38 AM
Shameless bump.

I recently made some Elk jerky with my "Plains Game" recipe, and figured it was an appropriate time to bring this back up for some new additions from members.

December 27, 2016, 08:33 AM
Mine is pretty simple:
Cut in thin strips
Course Ground Black Pepper
A little Chile powder
Smoke over Mesquite and or Oak wood.

December 27, 2016, 11:54 PM
Very interesting thread gentlemen. Keep the recipes coming. My only comments at this point in the thread is that real smoke wins handsdown over artificial processed smoke products anytime. And creating and building all of your own seasoning rubs, marinades, brines, etc. yourself are huge also over buying premade sauces and seasoning blends. But jerky is a simple food and having fun with it is great and I fully support that but also I support the observance of the simplicity of it also.
Burn on fellas.

December 28, 2016, 01:44 PM
Smoke over Mesquite and or Oak wood.

Soft maple or pecan is good too. I was really surprised by the silver maple.