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Old July 19, 2002, 12:48 PM   #1
dZ
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New Journal Issue on Children, Youth, and Gun Violence Released

GUN SAFETY PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND TEENS ARE INEFFECTIVE, SAYS NEW PACKARD FOUNDATION REPORT ON YOUTH GUN VIOLENCE

Stronger Policies Needed to Keep Children Away from Unsupervised Access to Guns


WASHINGTON, D.C. — A new report finds that programs to train children and adolescents to stay away from guns, or behave responsibly on their own around guns, do not work. The comprehensive report from The David and Lucile Packard Foundation says that instead of trying to change youth behavior around guns, policymakers and parents should focus on keeping kids away from unsupervised contact with guns, whether at home or in the community.


Some of the nation's leading experts* on children and guns authored the report, which recommends that federal and state policymakers place tighter restrictions on gun sales so that guns are harder for youth to obtain illegally. The report also recommends new product safety standards to make guns more difficult for children to fire, and new investments in programs that educate parents about how to keep their children safe from guns.


The findings and recommendations were released today in a report entitled "Children, Youth and Gun Violence." The report, which includes syntheses of research, authors' recommendations, and overarching analysis, is the latest issue of The Future of Children, a journal of The David and Lucile Packard Foundation.


Each year, more than 20,000 children and youth under age 20 are killed or injured by firearms in the United States, according to the report—more than 3,000 killed, and more than 18,000 injured. Firearms are the second leading cause of death among young people aged 10–19, second only to motor vehicle accidents.


"This report is the most comprehensive examination to date of the phenomenon of youth gun violence," said Kathy Reich, policy analyst at the Packard Foundation and editor of the report. "It shows that the death and injury toll among children and youth from gun violence is unacceptable. Public opinion may be sharply divided regarding adult ownership and use of guns, but hopefully we can all agree on the need for some common-sense measures to keep kids safe from gun violence."


The report concludes that behavioral programs for parents should be pursued, but existing programs geared to changing children's behavior "hold only limited promise for reducing youth gun violence." "Gun avoidance" programs for children, while prevalent, remain largely unevaluated, and those that have been evaluated have not demonstrated success. Children who have undergone avoidance training have been shown in experimental settings to find and play with guns at the same rates as children who have not received the training. Researchers find that young children often lack the cognitive maturity these programs expect they have, and adolescents often are susceptible to peer pressure, feelings of invulnerability and risk-taking behaviors.


The report offers three recommendations to keep kids away from guns:


* Federal and state legislators and regulators must insist on tighter regulation of gun sales, safe gun designs and product safety regulations for real guns. Currently, real guns are not subject to safety regulations.

* Parents must take responsibility to protect children from guns, by either not having them in their home, or by storing them locked, unloaded and separate from ammunition.

* Law enforcement, community leaders, and educators should work together to keep kids safe through "community-based policing approaches" and by sending unequivocal messages to youth that gun violence is not acceptable.




The Need for Stronger Regulation of Gun Sales and Safe Gun Designs


Even though it is illegal for youth under age 21 to buy handguns, and for youth under age 18 to buy shotguns or rifles, many teens find it easy to acquire guns from family, friends, or on the street through illegal gun dealers or private sales. The report proposes that to curb gun violence, Congress and state legislatures institute tighter restrictions on gun sales with close oversight of licensed dealers, regulation of private sales, and mandated licensing of gun owners and registration of guns.


In addition, the report recommends that Congress and state legislatures mandate that guns include product safety features which make them difficult for children to fire, and support research to develop "personalized" guns that cannot be fired by teens or other unauthorized users. Though 86 percent of Americans support requiring all new handguns to be childproof, one major reason that technologies to childproof guns have not been developed is that no one is mandating them, according to the report. Guns are not regulated for safety by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, or any other federal agency.


"It may be shocking to the public to think that toy guns and other toys are scrutinized by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, while real guns, with the potential to do so much harm, are not," said Stephen P. Teret, J.D., M.P.H., journal author and professor of Health Policy and Management and immediate past director at the Center for Gun Policy and Research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.


The Need for Parental Involvement and Safe Gun Storage


Studies show that parental supervision of children's behavior, particularly in neighborhoods where violence is common, can have an effect on reducing gun violence, as can safe storage of guns in the home. But less than 40 percent of gun-owning American households with children store their guns locked and unloaded, highlighting the need for greater parent education and awareness about the risks that guns pose to children.


"Storing guns safely in homes could reduce the risk of gun injury and death to children, and could deter theft, which is a common source of guns used in crimes. Surveys show that more than 70 percent of Americans support laws requiring gun owners to lock up their guns," says Reich. "Some oppose safe storage because they believe it makes guns less accessible for self-defense purposes. But such concerns must be weighed against the risk to children, and children's safety should come first."


The Need for Strong Law Enforcement–Community Partnerships


The report suggests that a potentially successful approach to addressing gun violence through law enforcement is "community-based policing," where police engage the community in controlling gun crime and preventing violence. The report points to the city of San Diego, where community-based policing resulted in a significant drop in gun violence. The police met with community advisory boards to identify crime problems. More than 1,000 citizen volunteers were trained to prevent crime and assist in their neighborhoods, and police officers were assigned to schools to assess at-risk youth and connect them with services before they committed crimes.


The Need for Better Tracking of Gun Crimes


Among the report's other recommendations is the need for federal, state, and local agencies to collect better data about gun-related deaths and injuries. Although 13 national data systems collect information on people who are killed or injured in the United States, none of these systems is designed to capture information about firearm death and nonfatal injury generally, or about gun death involving children specifically, according to the report. A comprehensive violent death and nonfatal injury reporting system would "document patterns of violence nationwide, yield more complete data about firearm violence, and support policymakers' efforts to develop strategies for reducing all forms of violence, including gun violence," according to the analysis. A national system such as this would cost an estimated $20 million per year.


The Future of Children is published twice annually by The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. The primary purpose of the journal is to disseminate timely information on major issues related to children's well-being, in order to translate research into better policies and practices that improve the lives of children. The issue "Children, Youth and Gun Violence," can be accessed in its entirety at no cost on The Future of Children Web site, www.futureofchildren.org.


The David and Lucile Packard Foundation is a private family foundation created in 1964 by David Packard (1912-1996), co-founder of the Hewlett-Packard Company, and Lucile Salter Packard (1914-1987). The Foundation provides grants to nonprofit organizations in the following broad program areas: conservation; population; science; children, families, and communities; arts; and organizational effectiveness and philanthropy. The Foundation makes grants at the national and international level, and also has a special focus on the Northern California counties of San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Monterey.


###

------------------------------------------------------------------------


*Journal Authors: Children, Youth and Gun Violence

* Alfred Blumstein, Ph.D., J. Erik Jonsson University Professor of Urban Systems and Operations Research, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University

http://www.futureofchildren.org/news...?doc_id=116149

http://www.bradycampaign.org/press/r...asp?Record=411

Gun Safety
NPR's Rachel Jones reports on a new finding that kids' gun safety education doesn't seem to work in keeping them away from firearms and that its possibly parents who need to take the initiative. (3:30)

http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/me/20020719.me.14.ram
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Old July 19, 2002, 12:50 PM   #2
dZ
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Children, Youth, and Gun Violence
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 2 - SUMMER/FALL 2002
http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs...?doc_id=116024

Download a full version of this issue
Journal (no photos) (1108K) [description] _ [download]
Journal (complete) (6354K) [description] _ [download]

CONTENTS
Statement of Purpose
Richard E. Behrman


_
full article _ ___

Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations
Kathleen Reich, Patti L. Culross, and Richard E. Behrman
An analysis of the physical, economic, and psychological effects of gun violence by and against children and youth, including recommendations for reducing youth firearm deaths and injuries.

_
full article _ ___

Firearm-Related Death and Injury among Children and Adolescents
Lois A. Fingerhut and Katherine Kaufer Christoffel
An overview of trends in firearm-related injury and death among Americans under age 20, and an assessment of which youth are most at risk for firearm death.

_
full article _ ___

Youth, Guns, and Violent Crime
Alfred Blumstein
A discussion of how several interrelated factors, including the use of handguns by youth, the growth of illegal drug markets, and the prevalence of youth gun carrying, influenced trends in violent crime in the 1980s and 1990s.

_
full article _ ___

Where the Guns Come From: The Gun Industry and Gun Commerce
Garen J. Wintemute
An examination of how guns in the United States are manufactured, marketed, and sold in ways that make them attractive and accessible to youth, and a description of policies that hold promise for decreasing the flow of guns to youth.

_
full article _ ___

Mitigating the Effects of Gun Violence on Children and Youth
James Garbarino, Catherine P. Bradshaw, and Joseph A. Vorrasi
A review of research regarding the psychological effects of exposure to gun violence on children and youth, and a discussion of strategies that adults can use to help children cope with gun violence.

_
full article _ ___

The Costs of Gun Violence against Children
Philip J. Cook and Jens Ludwig
A framework for understanding and estimating the costs of gun violence against young people, taking into account the intangible costs associated with concerns about the safety of children and youth.

_
full article _ ___

Behavior-Oriented Approaches to Reducing Youth Gun Violence
Marjorie S. Hardy
A synthesis of research findings surrounding behavioral approaches to gun violence prevention, and a description of obstacles that hamper these programs' effectiveness, with particular focus on programs aimed at children and youth.

_
full article _ ___

Product-Oriented Approaches to Reducing Youth Gun Violence
Stephen P. Teret and Patti L. Culross
A history of efforts to add product safety features to guns that would make them more difficult for children and youth to use, and an assessment of the potential of the product safety approach for reducing youth gun violence.

_
full article _ ___

Policing Guns and Youth Violence
Jeffrey Fagan
Case studies of how eight cities policed gun crime, through police–citizen partnerships to address youth violence, aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of criminal activity, alternatives to arrest to change youth behavior, or a combination of approaches.

_
full article _ ___

Public Perspectives: Introduction
Two descriptive articles that shed light on the beliefs of Americans and the opinions of advocacy groups on both sides of the debate about youth gun violence.

_
full article _ ___

Public Perspectives: Public Opinion about Gun Policies
Tom W. Smith


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full article _ ___

Public Perspectives: Children and Guns: Advocacy Groups Speak Out
James Forman, Jr.


_
full article _ ___

Major Federal Firearm Laws (Still in Effect), 1934–1999


_
full article _ ___

List of Acronyms


_
full article _ ___

Selected Bibliography


_
full article _ ___
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Old July 19, 2002, 01:11 PM   #3
DMK
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" A new report finds that programs to train children and adolescents to stay away from guns, or behave responsibly on their own around guns, do not work. "

Gee, exactly how many public service programs to teach firearms responsibility to children are there? Let's see, there's the Boy Scouts (who knows if they still teach it) and Eddie Eagle. They certainly aren't getting a lot of press. Everybody wants to teach their children that firearms are taboo, then wonder why they mishandle them when they do come across one!


"Each year, more than 20,000 children and youth under age 20 are killed or injured by firearms in the United States"

Oh that old thing again. How many are under 18 and not gang members?
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Old July 19, 2002, 01:54 PM   #4
madkiwi
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Quote:
Each year, more than 20,000 children and youth under age 20 are killed or injured by firearms in the United States
An AOL user with WebTV could find the necessary information to debunk that ludicrous claim.

According to the Center for Disease Control, TOTAL deaths by accident, homicide and suicide for under 20 year olds in 1999 was 16,435. How many of those were from gunshot wounds? About 3,385 (Accidents 214, Homocides 1,990, Suicide 1078, balance undetermined as to intent) Sources www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/pdf/nvsr49_8tb17.pdf and www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr49/nvsr49_11.pdf

Quote:
Firearms are the second leading cause of death among young people aged 10–19, second only to motor vehicle accidents.
Confusing cause with means. It is tricky to discern, because the CDC numbers are not completely broken out, but wouldn't the 2nd leading cause of death actually be HOMOCIDE?

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Old July 19, 2002, 02:16 PM   #5
Keith_Yorktown
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OK, you've stated how many deaths there were, how many injuries??

The CDC estimates that 18,000 firearms injuries occured in 2000, for kids aged 0-19

http://webapp.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/nfirates.html

***

Yep, locking the object up or making it illegal has worked so well for alcohol, tobacco and drugs.

***

And one has to wonder if they've used the 20/20 methodology in testing their theory. You know, put a group of kids in a room with hidden guns. After the kids find the gun and report it, ignore the kids and see what they do...
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Old July 19, 2002, 02:27 PM   #6
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Who wrote this garbage, Sarah, I know what's good for everyone else, Brady?
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