I'm not sure what data you are reading or what media reports you might have seen, but Ive heard the opposite; the AR 5.56mm(5.56x45) 6.8SPC, .300AAC Blackout, 7.62mm, etc do much better than common handgun calibers.
In the 2000s, the big push in US law enforcement was to switch from SMGs & pistol caliber carbines to M4/AR type patrol rifles. New optics, white-lights, stocks, etc all gave these rifles a serious advantage over the SMGs/carbines.
As for the noise or muzzle blast, any
firearm could cause serious or even permanent hearing loss. Revolvers, pistols, carbines, shotguns, etc.
FWIW; the pistol caliber carbines & SMGs(9x19mm .45acp) were considered sub-standard by many commandos in the elite MAC-V-SOG. This spec ops group in SE Asia were able to carry or use nearly any weapon they wanted. Many found the sub-machine guns & pistols lacking in real firepower for the MAC-V-SOG missions. Author & tactics expert: John Plaster who served in the unit documented these pistol caliber problems in his non-fiction books about MAC-V-SOG.