I don't believe I've ever heard of any one using a bolt-action rifle for home defense, on purpose anyway.
Me neither, but in reality there is no reason not to. You see people recommend lever actions quite often and in reality a man who knows how to run a bolt rifle is for all practical purposes just as fast.
Many modern bolt guns are far lighter and more compact than any lever gun and offered with more options for short barrels. My 30-30 lever guns are the heaviest guns I own, out weighing my heaviest bolt rifle, a 300 WSM. Some of my 308 bolt rifles are as much as 2 lbs lighter than my lightest 30-30.
This was the intent of the Scout rifle concept. I strongly disagree with the forward scope mount, but there are any number of options that would work quite well.
My vote for best bang for the buck would be one of the Ruger American compact rifles with a 16" barrel in either 308 or 223 with a street price of $350 with a 1-4X20 scope on it.
At 6 lbs it would be 1-1.5 lbs lighter than a lever gun, with a 4" shorter, more compact barrel. The scope on 1X is faster and more accurate than any iron sights and 4X is enough for reasonable distances.