Your question: is the .30 carbine a viable option for deer? I would echo what other said and say yes with caveats... Limit the range, make sure you have the accuracy, use the right ammo...
BUT... You own an even better brush gun in your lever 30-30. I would pick that above the .30 carbine every day and twice on Christmas!
As for comparing the .30 carbine from killing men to deer, I stand with Doyle. Yeah, they may have been issued in WWII, Korea, and Vietnam, but as for hunting deer, it's not a similar comparison.
NRA Life Member