Or, since the round is shorter than the .38 Special, a 640 centennial with shorter frame and cylinder than the original Centennial but in .38 Super and moon clips?
That would be one heck of a CCW pocket gun! And DPX .38 Super ammo is available!
In the '90s, when the S&W 940 (9mm Centennial style J-frame) came out it wasn't uncommon for 940 owners to have the cylinders reamed to accept .38 Super as well as 9mm. Of course with what 940s are selling for today you probably wouldn't want to do it.
Obviously, S&W never offered a short framed J-frame but Taurus did offer their 9mm snubby with a shorter frame and cylinder. It was called the 905 Instant Backup and in addition to being shortened, it had a bobbed hammer and was DAO. I had one for a while and, to be honest, the difference in frame size and cylinder length wasn't enough to make the gun more concealable and when compared side by side with a 940 there was no accuracy or velocity advantage. Also, the weight savings were negligible, both the 940 and the regular 905 were about 22oz, the 905IB weighed only one or two ounces less. So, IMO, a short 9mm J-frame is a great idea in theory, a lot of wasted effort in reality.
However, a top break 9mm/.38 Super as you described would be pretty cool and very fast to reload.