I've been giving the odd spare moment to thinking about this...
Aside from some revolving carbines, nothing comes to mind.
There were automatic rifles/light machine guns that used assorted ways to pull the trigger to select for semi and full auto, but that isn't what you're looking for.
There's Blaser; they've used a hammer-shaped cocking piece (that's pushed forwards) to compress the firing pin spring, and have a "decocking button" to release it. With their single-set trigger having two modes of fire, that's about as close of a modern rifle as I can come up with and it isn't even within miles of meeting the criteria.
There was the Remington Keene bolt action with a cocking piece/cocking indicator on the rear of the firing pin that looked and acted like a hammer, but the trigger action was quite normal (other than provision so it could be set up to drop to "half cock" whenever the bolt was worked, needing to be thumb cocked for each shot).
I'm thinking that if you find anything, it'll either be a safety feature on some kid's gun designed in the first half of the 1900s or(more likely) some weird old design from the 1800s that the maker thought would take the shooting world by storm, but didn't.