I'm not in to survival scenarios. I have a gun safe full of guns which I don't plan on getting rid of whether I had to survive or not.
But in the spirit of the topic, I'll chime in.
I want to Alaska in '72 working on the Rail Road, I was sent to Healy where there was no place to live but a hotel, but no place for a family, I had a wife and two small kids. So I squatted on RR land and built a little log cabin.
I live there two years. In the winter I got laid off and there was zero jobs. I had to feed my family any way I could.
Then I had several guns, but used one to feed my family through the winter, that was a Savage Model D, 22/410 over and under. It worked, we survived on rabbits, ptarmigan, and fish.
So if I was to have to do it again, (which I wont) I'd pick the same gun, even though I have a gun safe containing just about any firearm style you can imagine.
Not all situations are the same. Later in my 22 years in Alaska I spent a great deal of time living with the Alaska Natives on the Bering Sea. (I was a company commander of a Native Alaskan NG Company).
These people had a different requirement for a "survival gun", that being what they could get ammo for, because like Healy, there are few jobs, no jobs means no money (except for their monthly guard check). They survived by hunting, to hunt marine animals you can't get by with a 22/410, but you shoot what you could get ammo for. The Guard had lots of ammo, so these guys picked a gun that would shoot Guard ammo, started with an '06, 308 and now 223s.
Now with the cheap surplus rifles and ammo, a lot of these guys have went to the Mosin.
CPT USAR Ret
USAMU Sniper School Oct '78
Distinguished Rifle Badge 1071