Energy, momentum, bullet construction, bullet area all come into play.
Energy is more a function of velocity than weight. It has more to do with destructive potential.
Momentum is an even function of weight and velocity. It is a indicator of penetration.
Bullet area is a function of size of the projectile and is an indicator of how large a crush cavity you will get.
Bullet construction is a combination of material and design. It can be used for better penetration or enhanced destruction. It's very hard to get a bullet that is constructed to penetrate alot and yet do great damage.
Any ammunition you get is a compromise. You can have high energy and low weight to enhance destructive capabilities or lower energy but more momentum (weight) for more penetration. But with good bullet construction you can get more penetration or destruction.
And of course larger bullet area can be used to get more of each or both.
If you want it all, real good penetration and real good energy and excellent bullet construction you need to go to some high velocity heavy weight big bores like .44 magnum DPX (ouch!) And that load demands a heavy big gun!
Seriously folks, it is mighty hard to get one type of ammo that does it all.
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