The .357 can be cranked up to pretty serious levels out of a 18.5" barrel. Buffalo Bore
has some .357 ammo that sends a 158gr jacketed bullet out at 2153fps.
That's more kinetic energy at 150 yards than a 6" barrel pistol with a hot load at the muzzle. I think 6" barrel .357 mag pistols have taken deer at 50-75 yards all day long.
The 1894C should be capable of taking a deer at 150 yards easily if you go by kinetic energy numbers. The factory sights are not going to be accurate enough to go beyond 100 yards though. If the rifle is equipped with a narrow front blade and a Skinner peep sight, I think 150 yards is do-able.
I'd have to set mine up that way and try it before I could definitely say. But I'm sure you can own any deer within 100 yards if you can hit it in the boiler room with a .357.
And since the 30-30 uses the same sight setup as the 1894, I'd say both rifles are sight limited rather than energy limited. With bead and buckhorn sights, all the 30-30 will do is kill deer deader than the .357 within the same range.
If you put a 2x or so sight on both rifles (thereby defeating the utter handiness of the 1894) I think the .357 would work up to 150 yards. If you load the 30-30 with Hornady flex tip bullets and Leverrevolution powder, you could stretch the 30-30 out to 225-250 yards.
Of course if you expect to go 250 yards and beyond, I'd think a scoped, bolt action is more appropriate than a lever gun. Inside 100 yards the .357 and 30-30 are equally effective on deer. But the 30-30 will kill them deader.