A question came up on another thread regarding headstamps (H/S) on older cartridges. Thought maybe that deserved its own thread.
Here are some old .45 Caliber cartridges:
And, the H/S of those cartridges:
Note that the .45 Colt Govt. round and the UMC round have copper primers, indicating blackpowder. The nickel primers indicate the rounds are loaded with smokeless powder. The .45 S&W round is loaded with a small copper primer.
These are from Frankford Arsenal, .45 M1873 and M1875:
The "R F" H/S is an early Frankford H/S, the "R" indicating "Revolver." Later the H/S became "F A" and the two digit date.
(The "M1875" and "M1873" are my own invention to designate the difference between the Colt and S&W rounds. I have never actually seen these designations on cartridge boxes.)