There are some good points made about the need for a rifle like I described in the OP in a world of draconian hunting seasons and regulations. This mental exercise started in a world without such limitations, or if you like, one in which those rules go unenforced. However, in reality of course, game laws would prevent such a situation from occurring in Virginia, unless we start seeing northward migration of the destructive wild hog populations. Of course, one could argue that black bear could be added to the top end of the list in place of deer because of the need for self-defense.
There have been a lot of good suggestions so far! I really like the idea of a single-shot 20 gauge set up to shoot both rifled slugs and varmint loads, any of the leverguns with appropriate handloads, or a single-shot rifle like a 22 Hornet or 223. I'm thinking iron-sights only, probably peep sights. :-)
"... I cannot but conclude the bulk of your [politicians] to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." ~ Jonathon Swift