I wipe down the exterior and clean any gunk from the action after every use. I don't touch the barrel until 200 or so rounds, if it gets rained on, after deer season or if accuracy starts to degrade. When I do clean the barrel I use a patch soaked in a good solvent and let it set 15-20 minutes to soak. Since I'm usually cleaning multiple rifles this gives me time to do several. I then run dry patches until they come out clean. I repeat as many times as necessary, but usually 1 time through does it, rarely more than 2.
As soon as possible I get back to the range and foul the barrel with at least 10-12 shots.