Placement is the answer. In the 50's the govt caught and relocated bears from Yellowstone. We ran cows in Monache Meadows. CA and by the 60's they gave us permits to take nuisance bears. We used .22 rifles...ear, eyes, end of nose and back of throats. Body shots require big bore.
My dad was a lion guide in Nevada. He used .22 and 357 (lions are thin skinned). Both tree easily.
Wolves? No personal knowledge... sorry.
Pepper sray or long guns. Handguns are wing and prayers for big guys unless .45 or larger. If you depend on that, spend time to be PROFICIENT!! No reason to tick em off... in the animal world, ticked too often means fighting back.
I went after a bear with a 9mm one time that came into our tent early morning while we were sleeping and the game warden snibly asked if I was good enough to get shot placement... told him I had 3 mags...gives me 39 trys now don't it? Thankfully I didn't catch up to find out.