I guess maybe Im going off the reservation here a bit but while I carry a 40 and a 45 I have also owned 9mm and 357.
The closest thing to human targets for comparsions are whitetail deer.
9mm will but its very iffy
40 45 both will also with quite a bit more authority than the 9mm
357 will cleaner with a lot more internal damage deeper than any of the above.
Ill be buying another handgun in the next week or so. Having my own little testing done on edible targets Ill either go for the 40 or a ruger lcp in 357.