Only if you want to make a break open single shot or double rifle.
The 7.62X54R is an excellent round for break action guns. Probably the best one out there in the 30 cal range.
But in bolt actions and autos the 30-06 (and the 308 too) are both better designed.
That’s not to say there is anything "wrong" with the Russian round. There’s not. It's old fashioned but still very very good.