The Bill of Rights is a rather unique thing in the world. It does not bestow a single right on the people. Instead it limits the power of the government to interfere with the rights of the people. The limit is on both Federal and state. These rights are much broader than what is included in the Constitution or the Amendments. So important is this idea that it its spelled out in the 9th amendment.
The Bill of Rights were ratified in December of 1791. A bit after independence was won and with an eye on the free for all that ensued in the wake of the British being driven out.