As others have said bullet selection is your primary concern. More specifically you need to consider that you do not want bullets to deform before they enter the body of the threat. Large frontal area due to early deformation will use up the available energy and give shallow penetration.
You mentioned leather jackets and vests. They are somewhat resistant to penetration and are likely to reduce penetration. What might be a marginally effective round on someone who is only wearing a cotton T-shirt, might become totally ineffective on someone wearing two layers of tough leather.
Either hard cast bullets, full metal jacket (non-deforming design), or maybe an relatively heavy (for caliber) XTP hollow point would be worth considering. You might want to set up some sort of test.
As always, just because you deliver 2 or 3 shoots to center of mass; a determined threat may take 30 seconds of more to become incapacitated. So plan on moving and seeking cover or other ways to save your life.
NRA Life Member - Orange Gunsite Member - NRA Certified Pistol Instructor
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