I've taken deer with a number of rifles from .357 mag to .300 mag. My favorite now is the Marlin 336 chambered with the 38-55. Loaded with a 255 gr bullet it is great on deer out to 200-250 yds. After it's development in 1894, it was slightly shortened, necked down and became the 30-30.
Because of the many black powder rifles still around, it is a hand load propisition. I have never had to shoot twice at a deer.