Congratulations on the CCW!
First stop: http://www.handgunlaw.us/
Second stop: Wal-Mart for the infamous Wally Walk.
As to where you cannot carry, you have to look at both federal and state law. I won't comment on state law, as I'm not licensed to practice in NY. With respect to federal law, a few come to mind off the top of my head:
1) Federal facilities (post office, VA, federal offices, etc), that you already know about; and
I know that there are others, but they don't spring to mind immediately.
Click on the link above to see a pdf on your state laws. Handgunlaw.us does a very nice job of collecting all of the relevant statutes (such as where you can't carry & duty to inform) in one spot. Naturally, you should go and double-check those against your state statutes.
Edited to add: When I first started carrying, I thought that there would be a federal prohibition on carrying in banks, but I've never been able to find one.