I think it depends on the malfunction. If it was something that I thought could have been ammo-induced, I would see if it happened again in that range trip. If it didn't, I would continue carrying it, but be on the lookout, and probably visit the range again with more ammo as soon as possible. If it got through the next 200 rounds, hopefully the next day or so, I'd call it good to go.
If the problem happened more than once, it would get shelved until I could figure it out. At that point, regardless of the cause, it would need to go 200 rounds in a row without any issue, including a few mags of whatever ammo I'd be carrying.
I carry a spare magazine, and I train for malfunction clearing. I think that is the best you can do.
I should also add I have never experienced any centerfire malfunction with any gun that was not ammo-induced, and those only during my learning period of reloading (high primers). Since then, factory or reloads, I have never had any problem. But I don't shoot cheap guns.