You shoot enough and it is like any other physical skill. You know when you made a mistake. Even a good high school basketball player has a pretty good idea of the results when he/she releases a shot, whether it be a brick, bank, or "nothing but net." When I played golf I usually knew where the ball was going, at least where it would first hit the ground, before I picked it up in flight.
When I pull a trigger I know if I did something outside the norm and in most cases I know what that abnormality will result in, especially for rifles. Maybe someday I will get to the place where I forget what a bad shot feels like, but, at current, I have plenty of reminders.
IF someone is helping you with corrections you also have to communicate known human error so they aren't giving you sighting corrections to compensate for one time human errors.