Depends on the gun, but as a general rule a clean gun is a more reliable gun.
Henry .22 lever action gets the barrel cleaned out every 100 rounds or so. I take it apart every now and again to clean it more thoroughly.
Marlin .17 HMR bolt action stays very clean, and not necessarily because I clean it constantly. I can take a clean rifle, shoot 25 rounds through it, and put 1 wipe with cleaner on it through the barrel, it will come out with a tiny bit of powder residue and the next wipe going through it comes out the same color it went it.
Taurus .17 HMR stays very clean.
My range trip is going out the front door and shooting... They don't have boxes and boxes of ammo run through them before being put up. I just sort of get in the mood, load up the gun, walk outside and shoot at stuff.