You said that was a Federal round. I'm betting it was a Federal Champion. I had the exact same thing happen at my last range trip with a Fed. Champion 115 gr. round from my Kahr CM9. After firing my mag full of Gold Dots, I loaded the Champions and used the "slingshot" method to charge the pistol. Kahr recommends charging with the slide locked back and using the slide stop. Anyway, I placed the round back in the mag (didn't notice anything wrong) and charged the pistol as recommended but it still failed to feed. I ejected the round and it had bullet setback just like in the OP's photo.
I don't ever recall having that much setback before. Makes me wonder what Federal is doing (or not doing).