The design or the 22lr round is why it is bad to dry fire firearms that shoot them.
The firing pin lines up with the edge of the chamber and barrel, and can hit the barrel when dry fired.
It really depends on the gun and the steel used... I seen one of those Chiappa 1911 22s with severe peening of the barrel from the firing pin. So bad that a round would never feed into it without first being repaired... But it is a cheap pistol.
The manual should tell you if it is safe to dry fire or not... if it does not say anything, assume its bad.