Can the same thing happen in with large pistol primers and rifle cartridges?
You are a lot more likely to notice this error.
Large rifle and large pistol primers are the same diameter, but large pistol is not as deep.
It would be WAY below flush in a large rifle pocket.
Small pistol and small rifle are much closer to identical in all dimensions.
If you did seat a large pistol in a rifle pocket and could get it to go off (it wil be pretty far in) it would cause the same type of damage.
Erosion of the firing pin, breech face, etc.