I shoot pistols at 12" diameter gong targets at 25 and 50 yards. The plates are 1/2" thick.
You can see the impact marks, magnum JHP leave donut shaped craters.
Cast lead bullets disintegrate down to discs, jacketed with their pure lead cores disintegrate down to smaller discs and the jacket falls as a mushroom object.
I will see these discs flying in all directions out to 20 feet or more from the gong. I think rebound direction is heavily influenced by those pock marks.
Jacketed rifle bullets will go right through these gongs, cast rifle bullets will create craters. I only shoot cast rifle bullets or 44 Magnum rifles at 100 yards, and even then, the shock will bust the welds in time.
Might have been 303 Brit cast bullets that sent the gong back to reweld.
The thing that most bothers people at the range is lead splatter. When bullets disintegrate the heavy chunks fall close to the target, but tin foil thin splatter goes way up in the air and falls down. Goes pitter-patter on the tin roof and annoys shooters. The spall will carry over 50 yards on windy days. I have learned to quit shooting when there are high winds as spall gets carried and hits people. The hit is has no more impact than a flea bounce, but it upsets people. I have found, regardless of right and wrong and lack of danger, if you are considered a nuisance by enough of the gun club, steel targets will be banned.
Our club minimum space is 15 yards with lead projectiles and pistols.