My one friend used to get a kick from hearing his 38-40 hit. The "crack" of wood or the "umph" of a body shot after the shot told the tale. Winchester sells trap loads that are on par with 38-40 or 44-40 velocity, and slug loads that are faster.
Those not familiar with how much "Kentucky windage" it takes to hit a moving target with an old BP level load have a rifle useable at short ranges for one shot against a standing target. 2nd shot against a fast mover is likely to hit the tree where behind where the deer used to be.
For old bp level loads think shotgun. Faster smokless reloads or modern 44Mag think 2/3 shotgun and 1/3 rifle. 30-30 or 35 Rem think 1/3 shotgun.... or use a 308 or 243...