Calibers for glass penetration
I have had some small experience with stopping autos with handguns. My first experience in 1972 was in stopping an AMC Javelkin which was used to assault me and another officer. The round was a Remington .357mag, 158 gr. half jacketed soft nose. It went through the outer skin of the car and through the steel doorpost...from there it went throught the seatback and impacted the driver in the left buttock. It went completely through and was recovered from the driver's side floorpan in front.
In a junkyard shoot I fired a 230gr .45acp into the rear quarter panel of an older ChevyII station wagon and the round penetrated only the outer layer of sheet metal.
In the 70s-80s S&W came out with "armor piercing" buckshot and slugs for 12 ga shotguns. They would go completely through a car from side to side.
The greatest concern we had for shooting through metal and glass was always the unpredictablility of trajectory after impact. In the 70s I and other Officers came to the conclusion that shootinmg into a car was to be the most absolute last option. We did examine stopping autos by firing into tires with different calibers and loads and continued to use that as an option in dire needs must until I retired in 1995 after 25 years. My experience consisted of flattening a rear tire of an auto being pursued on the freeway after the passenger began firing a handgun out the window at pursuing cars. I used a Colt 1911A1 with hydra shok hollow points and one round fired into the sidewall flattened the tire in such a way that it deflated slowly.
I honestly wish that we had spike strips available to us then because it was exceptionally dangerous to all concerned. The mechanism for flattening car tires was to fire at the pavement slightly ahead of the tire in order to "bounce" the flattened projectile into the sidewall. If I was still working today I would not use a firearm to stop a car if other resources were available.
I am not a lawyer and anything I have stated is only my experience.
'At the end of the fight is a tombstone white with the name of the late deceased...And the epitaph drear, "a fool lies here who tried to hustle the east."'