My brother in law, so the story goes, joined the Air Force. When he was assigned to pull guard duty at an airbase and was handed an M-14 and no ammunition, he pretty much told them to pound sand. He never talks about what happened after that (I'll have to ask him some day), but I have a feeling he accepted a dishonorable dischanrge over being an unarmed target. Can't say I blame him if he did.
When I was in the Marine Corps reserve, it was SOP to have an NCO with a 1911A1 and loaded magazines in a sealed mag pouch for each platoon to guard the unloaded M-16s. Break the seal and be prepared to do a lot of explaining!