Quality firearms in the discount price range:
Remington 700 ADL
Savage 11x (you could go for a used pre-accutrigger to save money)
Weatherby Vanguard (composite)
The Weatherby Vanguard package is available at Cabela's for about $550-$600 in Stainless. You can find the blued package at Bud's Gun shop for about the same price. You can find the ADL at Sportsman's warehouse and Cabelas.
Chuck Hawks says the Savage is the best production rifle available.
You can certainly find a used package in your price range. Going used, you have some chance of finding a Browning or Winchester.