All things considered, the charge worked good enough for only loading with the equivalent of 50 grains of powder.
There are plenty of other bullets to try, but I wouldn't know how to quantify for any angle of deflection as bone was hit going in.
A heavier bullet may penetrate better as would loading more powder.
A Gold Dot pistol bullet or even pure lead may open up better, but may not have penetrated any better, or penetrated even less.
Your current load still worked though, that's the bottom line.
And loading more powder should only help.
It sounds like it was the powder charge and the angle of the shot that may have been "somewhat" marginal.
How large was the deer?
Congratulations on bringing home the meat.