First, the Arisaka bolt is NOT a Mauser bolt. It is a much simpler and much more ingenious system, with the fewest parts of any bolt, ever. It is made to be dis- and re-assembled without tools of any kind.
If the safety knob is completely out, you should be able to just point the rifle up and let the firing pin and spring slide out of the bolt body. (If you have to, pull them out with a hook of some kind.) Then the bolt should turn easily and come out after you pull out on the bolt stop on the left side of the receiver. (Do NOT hold the trigger back; the bolt can't turn if the trigger is held.)
To reassemble, drop the firing pin and spring into the bolt body, with the firing pin in the cocked position (cocking lug 180 degrees from the bolt handle). In the firing pin, at 90 degrees from the bolt handle, you will see a cutout. On the safety rod there is a lug. Insert the safety so its lug goes into that cutout, push the safety all the way in, turn it 90 degrees counter clockwise, and let it up. The bolt is assembled and ready to be inserted into the receiver.