Some limited experience
I've taken two Hill Country does with .45 Colt cartridge.
First was at maybe ten feet --not yards, but feet-- with a 7-1/2" barrel Ruger Blackhawk. Load was a home-cast Lyman/Ideal 454424, 265 gr. SWC with 10 gr. Unique. [NOTE: This load is too warm for SAAs and clones.] Bullet struck mid-neck and the doe fell in her tracks.
The other was at about 20 yards, with a Colt Single Action, 4-3/4", same bullet as above but with 9 gr. Unique. High lung shot. The doe ran about 25 yards and fell dead.
My personal range limit with handguns is about 40 yards, but I don't use optical sights.
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Blog: Expert Witness