Maybe it's just me, but I can't see any scratches on that case. It might help to have more detail about both the rifle and the ammunition. I have had some 7.62x54 ammo that was oversized and/or misshapen at the neck and bound in the neck area going in... Also, if it's an Izhevesk from about 1941-42, those typically look like rats were used to chew the metalwork. I've got one that makes a rasping noise like a file against metal when I work the bolt. Any metal part of one of those might have less than perfect dimensions and finish.
It might also be interesting to know if your rifle's headspace passes a GO gauge. It would be very unusual in an "old" rifle, but it could have less than minimum headspace.
Also, the Soviet manual for the Mosin Nagant instructed Soviet soldiers to wipe their ammo with an oily rag when filling their ammo pouches. It's amazing what a small amount of oil will do to help extraction of steel cases. Of course all of the conventional wisdom is that you just never, never, never fire oiled cartridge cases, so don't take my word for this. Read Terrence Lapin's translation. Also, that kind of extraction problem usually relates to lacquered steel cases, and your photo appears to show a copper washed case.
So... I dunno... but my first inclination would be to try some different ammo.