I’ve owned a T/C Renegade in .50 cal for a long long time, and have taken a lot of deer with it. I use the T/C maxi-ball with a charge of 95 grains of FFG. This is a very accurate loading in my rifle, and a combination that has never failed me in the field. The same goes for my hunting buddies who have also taken a lot of deer with a muzzleloader. I usually aim for just behind the shoulder, and that gives you a little leeway because a hit either a little back or a little forward will make no difference. That deer will be down. The maxi-ball will penetrate a deer from end to end, or take out both shoulders. In all the deer I have gotten with my rifle, I have never recovered a maxi-ball.
Most deer will be on the ground in just a few yards, usually just a step if you take out the shoulder bones, but some lung and heart shot ones may go considerably further. Unless I actually see the deer fall, I always like to wait for 30 minutes before taking up a blood trail.
I’m sorry to hear you had a bad field experience with a muzzleloader, but my advice is to forget the round balls and go with a maxi-ball or some other conical that is much heavier than a round ball. I know round balls will sometimes shoot incredibly accurate, but play around with different loadings and techniques with your rifle and you will find a conical of some sort that will shoot equally well. There is a world of difference in performance on game between the two.