What part is new to you? A .30-06 is plenty adequate for 150lb deer. I wouldn't be surprised if a shot to the neck dropped it. Generally a well placed bullet will put a deer down for good. Exspecially a shot to the neck, even though the spinal cord wasn't damaged a shot that tears through muscle and tissue and drops it is probably going to immidiatly cause shock and hemmoraging. Usually if a deer runs very far after being hit it is
A. Hot hit very good.. Maybe fatal, but not immidiatly.
B.Shot in the lungs. a good shot, but they can run quit a ways before all the oxygen in their blood is exausted and they go brain dead from lack of oxygen while still running.
Sometimes deer run aways after a heart shot, but I think this is pure instinct and muscle spasms, because this deer doesn't know he's dead yet. Congratulations on your deer. Do you have a pic you can post? What kind of deer was he? I'm not real sure what the question was, hope this helped though