Interesting thread, I keep seeing references to using "less than lethal" weapons. I don't know about other state's laws, but here in Michigan, the CPL holders can ONLY carry a handgun. No pepper spray, batons, saps, etc. So it's all or nothing. Those other weapons, as explained by the visiting LEO to our class, will get YOU charged with CCW. The training consisted of NOT shooting unless you are SURE the gun is your LAST RESORT and must be drawn. No "hinting" allowed (technically, it could be considered brandishing). Every situation is unique, just as there are no "routine" traffic stops by LEO's there are no "routine" confrontations on the street. The officer clearly conveyed that one must retreat from the situation, figuratively and/ or literally. The handgun is a "life-ring" when all else fails. He also explained that if one DOES shoot, the first call should be anonymous to 911 to report the shooting. The second call should go to one's lawyer. Wise advice IMHO.